Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex, and more violent. It takes a touch of genius and a lot of courage to move in the opposite direction.

E.F. Schumacher

First, i hope everyone is safe.

Second, i had meant this for reading over Thanksgiving but transparently I was having technical difficulties with `\LATEX `

rendering and it appears that both MATHJAX and native LATEX are not working on my site. For those interested i even injected the MATHJAX code into my` .php header`

. Hence i had to rewrite a bunch of stuff alas with no equations. Although for some reason unbenowst to me my table worked.

Third, Hey its time for a Snake_Byte [] !

In this installment, i will be discussing Algorithm Complexity and will be using a Python method that i previously wrote about in Snake_Byte[5]: Range.

So what is algorithm complexity? Well, you may remember in your mathematics or computer science classes “Big Oh” notation. For those that don’t know this involves both space and time complexity not to be confused with Space-Time Continuums.

Let’s hit the LazyWeb and particularly Wikipedia:

“Big O notation is a mathematical notation that describes the limiting behavior of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity. It is a member of a family of notations invented by Paul Bachmann, Edmund Landau, and others collectively called *Bachmann–Landau *notation or *asymptotic notation*.”

— Wikipedia’s definition of Big O notation

Hmmm. Let’s try to parse that a little better shall we?

So you want to figure out how slow or hopefully how fast your code is using fancy algebraic terms and terminology. So you want to measure the algorithmic behavior as a function of two variables with time complexity and space complexity. Time is both the throughput as well as how fast from t0-tni1 the algorithm operates. Then we have space complexity which is literally how much memory (either in memory or persistent memory) the algorithms require as a function of the input. As an added bonus you can throw around the word *asymptotic:*

From Dictionary.com

/ (ˌæsɪmˈtɒtɪk) / *adjective*. of or referring to an asymptote. (of a function, series, formula, etc) approaching a given value or condition, as a variable or an expression containing a variable approaches a limit, usually infinity.

Ergo asymptotic analysis means how the algorithm responds “to” or “with” values that approach ∞.

So “Hey what’s the asymptotic response of the algorithm?”

Hence we need a language that will allow us to say that the computing time, as a function of (n), grows ‘on the order of n3,’ or ‘at most as fast as n3,’ or ‘at least as fast as n *log*n,’ etc.

There are five symbols that are used in the language of comparing the rates of growth of functions they are the following five: ‘o’ (read ‘is little oh of’), O (read ‘is big oh of’), ‘θ’ (read ‘is theta of’), ‘∼’ (read ‘is asymptotically equal to’ or, irreverently, as ‘twiddles’), and Ω (read ‘is omega of’). It is interesting to note there are discrepancies amongst the ranks of computer science and mathematics as to the accuracy and validity of each. We will just keep it simple and say Big-Oh.

So given f(x) and g(x) be two functions of x. Where each of the five symbols above are intended to compare the rapidity of growth of f and g. If we say that f(x) = o(g(x)), then informally we are saying that f grows more slowly than g does when x is very large.

Let’s address the time complexity piece i don’t want to get philosophical on *What is Time?* So for now and this blog i will make the bounds it just like an arrow t(0) – t(n-1)

That said the analysis of the algorithm is for an order of magnitude not the actual running time. There is a python function called `time`

that we can use to do an exact analysis for the running time. Remember this is to save you *time* upfront to gain an understanding of the time complexity before and while you are designing said algorithm.

Most arithmetic operations are constant time; multiplication usually takes longer than addition and subtraction, and division takes even longer, but these run times don’t depend on the magnitude of the operands. Very large integers are an exception; in that case, the run time increases with the number of digits.

So for Indexing operations whether reading or writing elements in a sequence or dictionary are also constant time, regardless of the size of the data structure.

A `for`

loop that traverses a sequence or dictionary is usually linear, as long as all of the operations in the body of the loop are constant time.

The built-in function `sum`

is also linear because it does the same thing, but it tends to be faster because it is a more efficient implementation; in the language of algorithmic analysis, it has a smaller leading coefficient.

If you use the same loop to “add” a list of strings, the run time is quadratic because string concatenation is linear.

The string method join is usually faster because it is linear in the total length of the strings.

So let’s look at an example using the previous aforementioned `range built-in`

function:

So this is much like the linear example above: The lowest complexity is O(1). When we have a loop:

```
k = 0
for i in range(n):
for j in range(m):
print(i)
k=k+1
```

In this case for nested loops we multiply the time complexity thus O(n*m). it also works the same for a loop with time complexity (n) we call a function a function with time complexity (m). When calculating complexity we omit the constant regardless if its execution 5 or 100 times.

When you are performing an analysis look for worst-case boundary conditions or examples.

**Linear O(n):**

```
for i in range(n):
if t[i] == 0:
return 0
return 1
```

**Quadratic** O(n**2):

```
res = 0
for i in range (n):
for in range (m):
res += 1
return (res)
```

There are other types if time complexity like exponential time and factorial time. Exponential Time is O(2**n) and Factorial Time is O(n!).

For space complexity memory has a limit especially if you have ever chased down a heap allocation or trash collection bug. Like we said earlier there is no free lunch you either trade space for time or time for space. Data-driven architectures respond to the input size of the data. Thus the dimensionality of the input space needs to be addressed. If you have a constant number of variables: O(1). If you need to declare an array like using` numpy`

for instance with (n) elements then you have linear space complexity O(n). Remember these are independent of the size of the problem.

For a great book on Algorithm Design and Analysis i highly recommend:

The Algorithm Design Manual by Steven S. Skiena (click it takes you to amazon)

It goes in-depth to growth rates and dominance relations etc `as it relates to graph algorithms, search and sorting as well as cryptographic functions.

There is also a trilogy of sorts called *Algorithms Unlocked and Illuminated* by Roughgarden and Cormen which are great and less mathematically rigorous if that is not your forte.

Well, i hope this gave you a taste. i had meant this to be a much longer and more in-depth blog however i need to fix this latex issue so i can properly address the matters at hand.

Until then,

#iwishyouwater <- Alexey Molchanov new world freedive record. He is a really awesome human.

Muzak To Blog By: Maddalena (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack) by the Maestro Ennio Morricone – Rest in Power Maestro i have spent many hours listening to your works.